In recent years, the Cartel Department has successfully pursued regional, national and international conspiracies involving construction, agricultural products, manufacturing, services, consumer goods and many other sectors of our economy. Many of these charges are due to information revealed by members of the public who reported the information to the cartel service. Together, we can continue our efforts to protect and promote free and open competition in U.S. markets. During the COVID 19 pandemic, companies such as Pfizer and Moderna announced rates for their coronavirus vaccines, which would be different due to agreements with different governments. In the United States, executive orders have been adopted to reduce the cost of prescription drugs, which Pfizer`s CEO called “enormous destruction” to the pharmaceutical industry.  Bid manipulation is the way in which conspiratorial competitors effectively increase prices when buyers – often from the federal, regional or local governments – purchase goods or services by requesting competing offers. The price difference must be between the different buyers. This means that a refusal to sell can only be considered discriminatory at a higher price, which does not result in a sale or a mere offer to sell on discriminatory terms. As a general rule, only prices for buyers are directly relevant by the seller.
However, if the seller has some control over the terms of the resale, although the sales are made through an intermediary such as a wholesaler, the wholesaler`s customers may be considered “indirect buyers” of the seller. In other words, when a person (for example. B price fixing between competitors) is charged, the entire government or civil party must find that the defendant is indeed involved in the prohibited practice; Illegality is legal, regardless of the low anti-competitive impact, the defendants` small market share or the relevance of their motivations. The problem with the links between cartels and abuses of dominant position is that the leverage generated by economic power in one market is used to make sales on another. Once it is established that there is a binder; that the seller has sufficient economic power in the desired product to force the link; and that this is a “significant” turnover (amounts of up to $60,800 have been found and compliant with the standard) are generally considered illegal. Capital-related crime in cartel and dominance rules is horizontal pricing. Agreements between competitors on the prices of goods or services are in themselves illegal. The prohibition is comprehensive, regardless of who is involved and under any circumstances. Not only sellers, but also buyers fall within the scope of the law. Large and small businesses in all sectors, whether they are booming or depressed, are covered. Even price agreements designed to give participants the ability to compensate larger and more powerful competitors are not allowed.
A: A uniform and simultaneous price change could result from a price agreement, but it could also result from independent commercial reactions to the same market conditions. For example, if international oil market conditions lead to higher crude oil prices, this could lead to higher wholesale gasoline prices. Local gas stations can respond to rising wholesale gasoline prices by increasing their prices to cover these higher costs. Other market forces, such as the public publication of current prices (as is the case at most gas stations), encourage suppliers to quickly adjust their own prices so as not to lose revenue. However, if there is evidence that gas station operators discussed price increases among themselves and agreed on a common price plan, it could be a breach of the agreement. Records for changes or prices, including price lists, variat